The Astigmatism is an imperfection in the eye specifically in the area of the cornea and lens does not allow the correct passage of light to the retina causing blurred far and near vision.
In a normal human eye, the shape of the cornea is a perfect sphere that deflects (refracts) the light towards the retina, which in turn transforms the light into electrical impulses that are transported to the brain through the optic nerve so that later the brain transform these impulses into images.
Astigmatism occurs when light is refracted incorrectly since the cornea and lens have an oval shape, this clinical case usually manifests itself at birth and is accompanied by myopia or hyperopia. Children and adults are not excepted to this anomaly since it can be generated by an injury, surgery or disease that compromises the integrity of the eye.
Symptoms and signs of astigmatism
The following symptoms and signs are managed:
· Distorted or blurred vision at any distance
· Eye fatigue
· Bad night vision
· Squint your eyes
There are cases in which an adult can suffer from astigmatism and become asymptomatic or present mild symptoms, in children it happens that at an early age they present a certain level and are not aware that they have a different vision than normal.
It is important to emphasize that straining your eyes by reading with the light off, watching television from a short distance, and squinting do not cause or worsen astigmatism.
· Refractive error: It is derived from the oval shape of the cornea and the lens causing a bad deviation of light, you suffer from corneal astigmatism if it has uneven curves and you suffer from lenticular astigmatism if the lens has uneven curves. Either astigmatism can cause blurred vision and this can occur in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction.
Astigmatism can be accompanied by the following refractive errors:
· Myopia: A disease in which close objects are seen clearly but those that are far away are blurred, this is due to the fact that the cornea is very curved or the eye is very long, so that the light cannot focus correctly on the retina.
· Hyperopia: It occurs when the cornea is slightly curved or the eye is shorter than normal, producing an opposite effect to myopia where nearby objects are not able to be seen clearly, favoring a distance view.
The diagnosis of this disease is achieved through an eye examination where the specialist will submit the patient's eyes to a series of tests in which he will measure the level of refraction of the eyes by pointing directly at these bright lights and using special lenses...
The objective of this study is to provide the patient with a treatment that achieves clarity of vision and relieves eyesight, the most recommended and low-risk treatment is the use of corrective lenses such as glasses and contact lenses which compensate the shape irregularity of the eye focusing the light correctly.
Nowadays, refractive surgery is being used, which seeks to permanently modify the shape of the cornea by means of a laser beam that molds its curvature, allowing the correct deviation of light (refraction) towards the retina, discarding this way wearing glasses and contact lenses.
New techniques are being implemented, such as the extraction of the transparent lens and the placement of implantable contact lenses, but this type of operation involves an exhaustive study of the patient to evaluate the possibility of said eye surgery (LASIK).
As all surgery has in mind a percentage of risk in which vision may be lost, this is something very rare and particular to the case under study, however, if a considerable percentage of patients who have suffered during the course of the postoperative of dry eyes and frequent visual distortions, these side effects usually disappear in weeks or months and very few patients categorize them as permanent problems.
For children who cannot differentiate blurred vision from normal, it is recommended to perform eye exams with a health professional such as a pediatrician, ophthalmologist or optometrist to detect any possible visual disease early. It is recommended to carry out the analyzes in the following stages:
· During the neonatal period
· During the school years, annually during routine visits with an eye specialist.
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